School Board Approves WFP Recommendations

Tonight the ACPS School Board unanimously approved the recommendations and findings of the Superintendent and the WFP Redistricting Subcommittee, including the “Holding Pattern” for MLS.

Recommendations Forwarded to School Board

The Superintendent has forwarded the WFP Subcommittee recommendations to the ACPS School Board. We’ll provide links to the presentation and press coverage as it becomes available.

Daily Progress Article
CBS19 Newsplex Article
NBC29 Article

WFP Presentation to Superintendent

The WFP subcommittee met with the superintendent on 1/23/13 to review their recommendations. The presentation is now available and can be viewed HERE. The superintendent is likely to make her recommendations to the ACPS school board at either the 2/14/13 or 2/28/13 meeting.

UPDATE (2/14/13): The subcommittee Meeting Summary is now available for review.

Superintendent Presentation to School Board

The Superintendent is scheduled to make her redistricting presentation to the ACPS School Board this Thursday, February 14th at the regular meeting of the School Board. The meeting agenda can be accessed here:

The Hook Redistricting Article

The Hook published on 1/3/13 the following article on redistricting and property values:

Crozet Gazette Redistricting Update

The Crozet Gazette has posted an update on WFP redistricting. Access the article HERE.

WFP 12/18/12 Meeting Minutes

The minutes from the 12/18/12 meeting are now available. You can view the minutes HERE.

Local Media Coverage of 12/18 Public Meeting

Here’s the local news coverage of the 12/18 WFP Subcommittee meeting:

WFP Subcommittee Recommendations

The RAC WFP Subcommittee met Tuesday, December 18th, and voted unanimously to recommend NO redistricting for Meriwether Lewis for 2013-2014. In addition, the committee suggested that the Superintendent and School Board consider an addition to Crozet Elementary larger in size than the addition currently planned, and made a statement in support of modernization (without significant expansion) to Red Hill Elementary. The committee will formally submit these recommendations to Superintendent Pam Moran in January, and she will in turn make her recommendations to the School Board this spring.

ACPS Survey Results

Results of the ACPS WFP Redistricting Survey are now available.

Public Comment Meeting Minutes

The 12/11/12 public comment meeting minutes and the final version of the public comment meeting presentation are now available.
Meeting Minutes

Explanation of ACPS Capacity Formula

ACPS provided a detailed explanation to the BOS (at a 12/13/12 joint meeting) of factors used by the school division in determining school capacity. ACPS has provided the attached EXPLANATION.

Public Comments to BOS

Mary Margaret Frank provided the text of her 12/12/12 comments to the Board of Supervisors. Those comments can be reviewed HERE.

Petitions and Letters on Redistricting

The following petitions and letters related to the redistricting of MLS have been provided by members of the MLS community:
MLS PTO Petition
PTO-Collected Letters and Neighborhood Petitions
Bryerton Letter to BOS

Teahan email to BOS
Wood-Smith Letter
Wood Letter
Letter to RAC from West Leigh/Old Ballard

CBS19 Interview with Josh Davis

Bob Beard of CBS19 News interviewed Josh Davis about redistricting on Wednesday 12/12/12. You can watch the complete interview HERE.


The ACPS RAC has created an online survey on options for the WFP. You can access the survey HERE. The survey will remain open until 11:59pm on Sunday, December 16th.

Local Media Coverage of 12/11 Public Meeting

Here’s the local news coverage of tonight’s WFP Public Comment meeting:
Daily Progress

ACPS Presentation for 12/11 WFP Public Meeting

ACPS has made available for preview the 12/11 Public Meeting Presentation.

ACPS News Release - Redistricting Options

ACPS News Release regarding redistricting options to be presented for public comment at upcoming meetings.

Key County Meetings - Week of 12/10

During the week of 12/10 there will be a series of meetings leading to recommendations that may have both near and long-term effects on funding Albemarle County Public Schools, including projects for addressing capacity constraints in the WFP.

The School Board submits projects for the Capital Improvement Plan based on two five-year windows covering 10 years.
This year the proposed projects include additions to Agnor-Hurt (2013-2015), Crozet (2014-2016), Western (2018-2019), Yancey (2014-2019), Stony Point (2017-2019) and Scottsville (2018-2019)
The renovations or modernizations (which may also add seats at schools) include Henley (2014-2018), Yancey (2014-2016), Red Hill (2015-2016), Western (2014-2017)
After reviews by several committees, the Oversight committees sends its recommendations to the Joint Boards on DECEMBER 13TH OF THIS YEAR. THEREFORE, SPEAKING OUT AT THIS TIME OF YEAR IS WHEN HAVING YOUR VOICE HEARD MAKES THE BIGGEST IMPACT.

The meeting details, including whether or not public comments will be heard, are as follows:

1. Dec 11th Public meeting with the Western Feeder Pattern Redistricting Subommittee at Meriwether Lewis, 6:30pm
This redistricting committee will hear comments from the public that input on their recommendations to Pam Moran on where to redistrict next year or not. Pam Moran will provide a recommendation to the School Board who will eventually decide. Tuesday is also time to get on the record about long-term issues affecting the Western Feeder Pattern such as investment in schools in growth areas.

2. Dec 12th Public meeting with Board of Supervisors in the auditorium at the County Office Building, 6:00pm
This is a meeting where the public can speak. While the Capital Improvement Program (CIP) is not on the agenda, the public can speak about anything so it is the public's only chance to voice concerns over funding of the public schools before the BOS meets with the School Board on Dec 13th to discuss the CIP. These are the elected officials that decide the FUNDING LEVEL THAT PROVIDES FOR ADDITIONS AND RENOVATIONS IN OUR SCHOOLS. The public can observe but not speak at the next meeting on December 13th meeting. If you want the decision makers of investment in the County to hear your thought directly, can voice your concerns at this meeting.

3. Dec 13th Joint Meeting of the BOS and the School Board in Room 241 at the County Office Building, 3:30pm
The public can observe but not speak at this meeting. This is a meeting to come to show support for school funding and keep informed. The BOS will be working with School Board to determine what should go into the CIP.

4. Dec 13th Public meeting of the School Board following the Joint Meeting in the auditorium at the County Office Building, 6:30pm
This is a meeting where the public can speak. These are the elected officials that decide what to ask the BOS to fund first If you want the decision makers of funding requests for schools to hear your thought directly, you can voice your concerns at this meeting.

Joint School Board/BOS Meeting on 12/13

There will be a joint meeting of the Albemarle County Board of Supervisors and School Board at 3:30pm on Thursday, December 13th in the County Office Building Room 241. The Boards will be discussing the Capital Improvement Plan (CIP), including the possible Crozet Elementary addition. The CIP submitted by the School Board to the BOS is available for review HERE.

MLS PTO Redistricting Petition Closes 12/10

The MLS PTO online “Petition for No Change for MLS” will be open until noon on Monday, December 10th. Access the MLS PTO Petition to read and sign electronically.

Crozet Gazette WFP Article

The Crozet Gazette published an update on the WFP subcommittee meetings on 12/6. You can view the article HERE.

C'ville Weekly Article on WFP Capacity

C’Ville Weekly posted an article on the WFP “capacity crunch” today. You can read the article HERE.

Brownsville Elementary PTO Update Page

The Brownsville Elementary PTO has a redistricting update page on its website. Here’s the address:

WFP draft minutes 11/27/12 mtg

Draft minutes from the 11/27/12 WFP Subcommittee meeting are now available HERE.

MLS PTO Statement on Redistricting

The MLS PTO provided the following position statement on redistricting to the RAC WFP Subcommittee on 11/27/12: MLS PTO Statement on Redistricting

Online articles from late November

These are links to two online articles regarding ACPS redistricting from 11/24 and 11/25, respectively:
Daily Progress

RealCrozetVA redistricting update

Kelly Gobble, BES representative to the WFP subcommittee, posted a detailed review of the 11/27 meeting on RealCrozetVA. You can review the update HERE.

CBS19 Coverage of 11/27 Mtg

CBS19 News has a brief update on last night’s meeting posted online. You can view the clip HERE.

Background Info and Presentation for 11/27 Mtg

Here are the files from last night’s meeting:

Background Information
Meeting Presentation

Summary of 11/27 WFP Meeting

The WFP subcommittee met on 11/27 at Murray Elementary. The agenda included discussions on the following topics:
- WFP Feasibility Analyses:
> Future areas for redistricting with possible addition to Crozet
> Future feeder pattern shift with use of Red Hill
- Articulating advantages and disadvantages of the proposed MLS redistricting options
- Reviewing questions for the upcoming WFP online public survey

We’ll post a link to the meeting presentation as soon as it is available.

The WFP feasibility analyses was an introduction to possible approaches for managing long-term growth in the WFP particularly CES, BES, HMS and WAHS. The subcommittee reviewed and discussed which current Brownsville and Crozet neighborhoods may be considered for redistricting if an addition to CES is approved. The subcommittee also reviewed which current Brownsville and Murray neighborhoods may be considered for a shift to Red Hill (out of the WFP) to alleviate future capacity constraints at HMS and WAHS. The detailed creation, analysis and recommendation of any redistricting options will be the responsibility of future redistricting subcommittees (i.e., the current WFP subcommittee is NOT expected to make recommendations as part of the feasibility analysis).

During the second half of the meeting, the subcommittee members began a preliminary list of the advantages and disadvantages of the current MLS redistricting options under consideration. There remain five options under consideration:
- Holding Pattern
- West Leigh to Murray (28 students)
- Owensville/Kimbrough to Murray (21 students)
- Glenaire to Murray (8 students)
- Parts of Browns Gap to Crozet (19 students)

The advantages and disadvantages focused on retaining options for future WFP redistricting (flexibility), capacity/use of space, elimination of trailers, gain and loss of staff resources and transportation changes. The lists of advantages and disadvantages will continue to be developed throughout the public comment meeting planned for 12/11.

Lastly, the subcommittee reviewed a draft of the upcoming online public survey on WFP redistricting. The survey is being developed to provide the subcommittee additional information in advance of preparing the final recommendation(s) for the Superintendent at the 12/18 WFP subcommittee meeting. The survey is expected to “go-live” on the evening of 12/11.

Upcoming Meetings

Monday, 12/3, 6:30 pm at MLS – Josh Davis informational meeting on redistricting process
Tuesday, 12/11, 6:30 pm MLS – Meeting for public comment to subcommittee
Tuesday, 12/18, 6:30pm at HMS – Final subcommittee meeting to review and discuss public comments and finalize recommendation(s) for the Superintendent. The public is welcome to attend but it is NOT open to public comment

WFP Class Size Analysis
Additional Browns Gap Turnpike Option

ACPS Staff Comments on Murray Capacity Changes

The following details on changes in Murray Elementary capacity calculations have been provided by ACPS staff.

1. Prior to 2008, one of Murray’s classrooms was counted as a SPED room at a multiplier of 8 students. This room housed a self-contained autism program. The program no longer exists at Murray, so the room is counted as a regular classroom at a multiplier of 20 students. This resulted in a net increase of + 12 students in the capacity calculation.

2. Prior to 2008, policy excluded any room utilized for a pre-k program and enrollment projections did not factor in pre-k students. The policy change in 2008 (as well as the most recent policy change) both indicate that a pre-k program should be counted as 16 students. This is a better reflection of how many students are in the building. That is why we are also conscious in stating whether enrollment figures include Pre-K students or not when comparing them to building capacity. By now counting that room rather than excluding it, it is a net increase of +16 students in the capacity calculation.*

3. Lastly, the current & previous policy count 19 classrooms before any exclusions are made. This reflects all full size classrooms being counted. Prior calculations before 2008 appear to only have counted 18. It is our understanding that a room was omitted for a purpose that was not explicitly stated in policy (i.e. a teacher’s lounge). This was a common issue with past policies and one of the reasons why the policy was revised. In response, the new policy more rigorously counts classrooms. By counting all classrooms, this was a net increase of +20 students in the capacity calculation.

268 + 12 (for losing a SPED program) +16 (for counting rather than excluding a pre-K room) +20 (for counting an additional room that was previously omitted) = 316

History of Murray Capacity Revisions

ACPS Staff Comments on MLS Capacity

The following details on the current MLS capacity calculation have been provided by ACPS staff.

The multiplier of 8 students for a SPED room is only intended to be used for a “Self Contained Classroom”. In other words, a program where the students spend the majority, if not their entire, day in the room. An example would be a severely handicapped program. Meriwether Lewis does not have any such SPED programs. To count any other program (i.e. Gifted, an intervention program, etc.) would be double-counting students as they are already counted in their regular classroom.

The ACPS policy explicitly only counts full size classrooms. This was done intentionally. As Matt stated, staff deliberated & analyzed the formula in great detail and feel the current policy is accurate and what is best for students. If you start counting the smaller rooms, the formula must then account for functions (student related & administrative) that opens up a whole new layer of detail. For example: Where are the following located & which is a necessity? guidance, speech, school nurse, teacher workroom or lounge, conference rooms, storage, book room, etc.

To provide more detailed data, sizes for the 24 full-size classrooms are as follows:

Rooms 19-26: Avg. 750 sf
Rooms 13,14,16,18: Avg. 840 sf
Rooms 9-12: Avg. 1022 sf
Rooms 2,4,6,8: Avg. 860 sf
Rooms 1, 3, 5,7: Avg. 878 sf

Here are the state standards for room sizes:
K-1st Grade Room: 975 sf
2nd-5th Grade Rooms: 800 sf.
(These are minimums. Albemarle County typically strives for bigger rooms when building new.)

Room 17 is used for Guidance and is 562 sf. It is unclear what is the other “80% sized room” she is referring to. Room 15 is permanently divided. The front portion (along the hallway) is ~284 sf. The back portion with the window is ~270 sf.

ACPS Comments on Railroad Crossing Safety

Jim Foley (Director of Transportation, ACPS) offers the following notes and attached information (MS Excel file).
- We take the safe transportation of our students very seriously.
- We are not aware of any school bus accidents involving trains or railroad crossings in the history of ACPS.
- It is every Transportation employees’ goal to provide accident-free, efficient transportation to all students
- We comply with all DMV and Virginia Department of Education transportation requirements.
- Each school bus driver must earn and maintain a Class B Virginia Commercial Driver’s License with Air Brake, Passenger Bus, and School Bus endorsements
- DMV and State Code mandate a specific procedure for crossing railroad tracks, even for the crossings with active signals and cross arms:
- Turn on four-way hazard lights (not the non-sequential warning lights)
- Stop 15 to 50 feet from the rail
- Turn off all noisy equipment (defroster, fan, etc)
- Open door and driver’s window
- Listen and look carefully in both directions
- When clear, close the door, turn off the four-way hazard lights, and proceed with caution
- The crossing at West Leigh is an “active” crossing (has a cross arm and signal)
- There were a number of circumstances in the accident referenced by Professor Geis (Conasauga, Tennesee March 2000) that created the hazardous situation:
> It was a passive crossing with no cross arm or signal
> The driver did not follow the correct procedure
> The train conductor reported that the driver was looking straight ahead as she crossed the tracks
> Video revealed that she did not stop 9 out of the previous 12 times that she crossed the tracks
> The only time the driver stopped was when another vehicle was behind her. Also, when she was interviewed during the investigation, she recited the correct procedure. Consequently, she knowingly did not follow the correct procedure.
- ACPS routes are designed to avoid crossing a train track with students on board, but this is not always possible. In May 2011 ACPS school buses crossed RR tracks 101 times per day. The current number of daily crossings shown in the attached file is 61.
- We require that our drivers stop at stop lights and stop signs, obey the speed limit, activate their warning lights when picking up or dropping off students, and stop at RR crossings.
- Routes are reviewed for safety every year by the routing department and continually by the drivers, lead drivers, and the public. We make changes accordingly.
- All ACPS buses have video and GPS.
- Drivers are reviewed annually and lead drivers must take a hands-on approach to coach, develop, and evaluate each driver. This includes ride-alongs, GPS, and video.


WFP draft minutes 11/13/12 mtg

Draft minutes from the 11/13/12 WFP Subcommittee meeting are now available HERE.

ACPS News Release on Upcoming Public Hearings

ACPS released a statement this morning on upcoming public meetings regarding redistricting. You can review the statement HERE.

Western Albemarle Redistricting FB Page

A Facebook page for sharing information and expressing opinions about Western Albemarle Redistricting has been created. Here’s the URL:

Summary of 11/13 WFP Meeting Decisions

We’re still awaiting the official minutes from the 11/13 meeting, but here is an overview of decisions made by the committee:

The WFP subcommittee met on 11/13 to review current and projected enrollments, residential growth and building capacities. Updated enrollment projections were provided. The committee was directed to come up with a list of options to address the over program capacity status at MLS. The discussion of each option was brief as the plan for the next meeting is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages for each option. The options up for up discussion at the next meeting are:

Holding Pattern
Browns Gap Tpk: # TBA to Crozet Elementary
Glenaire: 8 students to Murray
Owensville up to and including Kimbrough: 21 students to Murray
West Leigh: 28 students to Murray

To explain some of the changes made at the meeting:

It was decided that moving 36 students would bring Crozet over capacity, but perhaps a smaller number could be sectioned off. Staff is getting more information on this option. The exact number and area will be provided for the next meeting.

The Holkham to Murray option was taken out of the discussion because the 50 students would bring Murray over capacity. However, a smaller section including Kimbrough Circle was kept on list of options to discuss.

The committee is considering that the Glenaire area would be combined with another area rather than as a stand alone option.

The role of this committee to create a list of options to give to the Superintendent of Schools. The Superintendent will in turn make a recommendation to the School Board who will vote on the matter.

Upcoming Meetings:

Tuesday, November 27 at 6:30 pm at Murray Elementary - Regular Subcommittee Meeting. The public is welcome to attend but it is NOT open to public comment.

Monday, December 3 at 6:30 pm at MLS - Josh Davis will hold an informational meeting

Tuesday, December 11 at 6:30 at MLS – Meeting for Public Comment to Subcommittee

Tuesday, December 18, 2012 – Regular Subcommittee Meeting to review and discuss public comments. The public is welcome to attend but it is NOT open to public comment

Remember…Stay Informed. Get Involved. Be Courteous!

I’d like to take this opportunity to remind everyone to treat one another with respect in our communications and actions. This includes our written communication (e-mail), social media posts and public interactions with all members of the redistricting subcommittee and ACPS staff.

Subcommittee volunteers are also parents, co-workers and fellow community members. We are all motivated by a strong interest in ensuring that the high quality of education provided by all ACPS schools continues now and long into the future. We take our responsibilities seriously, are listening to the broad range of community concerns and are committed to recommending the best solution(s) for the children in our community.

Understandably, the issues we’re discussing are emotionally charged. But remember, incivility towards one another just gives people a reason NOT to listen. More importantly, the behavioral example we set for our children during this process will likely have an impact that far outlasts any changes from redistricting. Stay informed. Get involved. Be courteous.

Please have a safe, relaxing and enjoyable Thanksgiving holiday!

James Younger
MLS Representative
ACPS WFP Subcommittee

Redistricting Update on RealCrozetVA

WFP Subcommittee member Kelly Gobble (Brownsville Elementary) provided a redistricting update on 11/16 for the RealCrozetVA community blog. You can read the post here:

WFP Subcommittee Mtg Presentation

Here are the additional materials from the 11/13 WFP Subcommittee meeting.
Meeting Presentation
Updated Enrollment Projections

ACPS Staffing Standards

Here are the current ACPS staffing standards (see page 10): ACPS Staffing Standards

WFP Subcommittee Meeting Update

Here are materials available for this evening’s WFP Subcommittee meeting. We’ll post the meeting presentation and minutes when they become available.

Background Material
Updated Projected Enrollment Data
Survey Results

Key decisions out of tonight’s meeting:

- Use MLS Program Capacity of 380 for committee decisions
- Remove Old Ballard to Murray option from consideration
- Remove Owensville/Holkham to Murray option from consideration
- Public Hearing at MLS - 6:30pm on Tuesday, December 11th (tentative)
- Next WFP Subcommittee meeting - 6:30pm on Tuesday, November 27th (Murray)

Options that are still under consideration:

- West Leigh to Murray
- Owensville/Kimbrough to Murray
- Glenaire to Murray
- Browns Gap Turnpike to Crozet

Upcoming WFP Subcommittee Meetings

The next WFP Subcommittee meeting is currently scheduled for 6:30pm on Tuesday, November 13th at Crozet Elementary. There will also likely be a meeting on Tuesday, November 27th, location TBD.

WFP Subcommittee Meeting Canceled

The WFP Subcommittee meeting scheduled for Tuesday, 10/30/12 has been canceled due to expected inclement weather. The meeting will be rescheduled.

WFP Survey Closed

Thanks to everyone that completed the MLS PTO WFP Survey. The survey is now closed.

CBS19 Interview with Josh Davis

Bob Beard of CBS19 News interviewed Josh Davis about redistricting on Wednesday 10/24/12. You can watch the complete interview HERE.

WFP Survey Closes at 10pm on 10/26/12

FYI - We’re closing the MLS PTO online WFP survey at 10pm on Friday, 10/26/12. If you’ve not already completed the survey, you can do so HERE. Thanks!

WFP Draft minutes 10/16/12 mtg

Draft minutes from the 10/16/12 WFP Subcommittee meeting are now available HERE.

School Board member Eric Strucko on 10/18/12

Albemarle County School Board member Eric Strucko speaks with 1070 WINA Radio about redistricting and SOL scores on 10/18/12:

Update on WFP redistricting options

The WFP subcommittee made two decisions at last night’s meeting. First, the subcommittee approved adding an “MLS Holding Pattern” option for further review and discussion. This option puts a hold on MLS redistricting for 2013-14.
Second, the WFP subcommittee approved removing the “TO” Broadus Wood option from future consideration.

Presentations from 10/16 SubCom Meeting

Here are the materials related to last night’s WFP Subcommittee meeting
Meeting Agenda
Meeting Presentation
MLS Capacity vs. Enrollment (MSExcel)
WFP Actual vs. Projected Enrollment (MSExcel)
Background Materials

WFP Snapshot of MLS PTO Survey Results

We’ve so far received 65 responses to the online MLS PTO Redistricting Survey. Here’s a snapshot of responses to two of the survey questions:

Please distribute 100 points across these changes associated with redistricting by awarding MORE points to the changes of GREATER concern to you. (% of total points awarded):

Would you be willing to let your child attend an overcrowded school for 2 years during construction of additional classroom space? YES - 97%

Thanks to everyone that has completed the survey and provided their comments about potential redistricting!

WFP Subcommittee Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the 10/2/12 WFP Subcommittee meeting are now available HERE.

Correction - "How Many Students"

An attentive MLS parent discovered an incorrect MSExcel formula used to calculate the projected % capacity for Broadus Wood in our first “How Many Students” analysis. We’ve sent an updated analysis to the subcommittee members. Use these links to view the corresponding e-mail message, MSExcel spreadsheet, and PDF file.

If you discover any errors in files posted on our BLOG, please notify James Younger.

RAC Past Project Examples

Hollymead and Stony Point elementary schools went through a redistricting review in 2011-12. Hollymead was redistricted. Stony Point was not. The documents posted on the RAC Past Projects web page provide examples of the types of data analyzed and the recommendations reached by the advisory committee. You can see these documents here:

ACPS Facilities Planning Capacity Calculations

FYI - an explanation for how elementary school capacity (including a school’s “multiplier”) is calculated can be found in the ACPS Policies and Regulations:

WFP LRPAC Enrollment Projections

The WFP school projected enrollment included in the 10/2/12 presentations were from this past summer’s Long-Range Planning Advisory Committee 10-year projections. Here are the LRPAC Enrollment Projections.

WFP MLS Request for Information

Here’s the Request For Information E-mail sent to the WFP Subcommittee this morning.


We’ve created a redistricting survey for our MLS community. You can access the survey on or TAKE THE SURVEY NOW!

WFP "How many students?"

We’ve taken a first pass at determining the number of students that would have to be redistricted “FROM” MLS to reach 100% capacity in 2013-14 based upon current capacity and projected enrollment data from 10/2/12 presentation. Here are the analysis summary, MSExcel spreadsheet and PDF version.

WFP Meeting Schedule

The RAC WFP subcommittee has established the schedule for its upcoming meetings. These meetings are open to the public, but will NOT include a public comment period. The current meeting schedule is as follows:

Tuesday, October 16th, 6:30pm - 8:30pm, MLS

Tuesday, October 30th, 6:30pm - 8:30pm, Murray Elementary

Tuesday, November 13th, 6:30pm -8:30pm, Crozet Elementary

Tuesday, November 27th (if necessary), 6:30pm - 8:30pm, Location: TBA

WFP Kick-off Meeting

The Albemarle County Public Schools’ Redistricting Advisory Committee (RAC) and Western Feeder Pattern (WFP) Subcommittee met on Tuesday, October 2nd. Here are the RAC Overview Presentation and the WFP Breakout Session Presentation.